Making of false document is forgery. Making a part of the document which is false is also a forgery. The object of forgery must be to cause damage to any person. The damage need not be to any property. It can be to the reputation. Such object may be to support any false claim or title or to cause any person to part with the property. The object of forgery may be to enter into any express or implied contract. In all these cases the intent to commit fraud against the other is necessary element. Forgery may be committed by fraudulently signing the name of any authority or person with a knowledge that such authority or person could not have signed. Forgery may also be committed by canceling or altering any material part of the document after it has been executed. It is also a forgery where a person induces another who is of unsound mind or under heavy intoxication to put his signature. The forged document must be which is capable of effecting the legal rights and is found to be capable of affecting a fraud. A document which is not admissible in evidence is also a forged document. For purposes of this offence, the fact that the document is not in its proper form will not save the forgerer from the charge of forgery. The marks imprinted on trees with a view to deceive the authorities amounts to forgery. Anti dating the document where it is intended to operate to the prejudice of another is also a forgery. Forgery can’t be justified on the ground that the property in relation to which the document is forged lies with the forger himself. Mere attempt to prepare for forgery such as getting printed some receipt books to be used after committing forgery is no offence. However tampering the account books by making additions and deleting amounts to forgery. Fabrication of certificates is forgery. Creating another document to conceal the fraud is forgery. If several persons join to commit forgery each executing by himself a distinct part are all liable to be convicted together. Person who uses any forged document as genuine is punished in the same manner as the person who actually gorged document. However, persons producing forged documents innocently are not liable to be punished. A person merely stating the forged document as genuine does not commit the offence of using the forged document. Where the document is produced on compulsion when he knows it to be forged, commits the offence of using the forged document. When the document is produced but is rejected, the person producing the forged document notwithstanding the refusal by the Court to use the forged document can be charged with forgery. Persons using the fabricated seals or counterfeiting commit the offence punishable under forgery.
[Ref.: State of U.P. v. Ranjit Singh AIR 1999 SC 1201; Ramnarayan Popli v. Central Bureau at Investigation, 2003 (3) SCC 641.]