Act of God is that which occurs beyond the human agency and also beyond the human expectation. It is a calamity which natural forces cause. It depends upon the solar, wind and geological conditions. Earthquakes, high tides, floods, under-currents in the sea, Tsunami and thunder bolts are instances of the vagaries in nature which cannot be fore told or predicted. To the damage caused to the people thereby, neither the State nor any individual can be held responsible. This, however does not mean that the State is not liable to protect the people by preventive action or save them from further hardship by undertaking preventive and rehabilitation steps. That is why in recent times the State is establishing what are called calamity funds to meet such contingencies and providing ex gratia payments to the victims. In civil law nobody is responsible for the consequences of the act of God. However, the person who hangs dangerously any structures or trees may be held liable if they crash by reason of any climatic disturbances. The insurance companies specially set up to save its clients from acts of God are offering to cover such risks holding themselves liable to pay for the damage. Crop insurance is one such institution.
[Ref.: Karanbala Damdapat v. Secretary, Grid Corporation of Orissa, AIR 1998 Ori. 159; Union of India v. Kotari Trading Co., 2000 (4) SCC 91.]